GEOGRAPHY – Environment and Ecology

T.N. noties Cauvery South Wildlife Sanctuary

  • The Tamil Nadu government has declared an area in the reserve forests of Krishnagiri and Dharmapuri districts as the Cauvery South Wildlife Sanctuary.
  • The sanctuary will include 686.406 sq. km of reserve forests in the Anchetty, Urigam and Jawalagiri ranges of the Hosur Forest Division, which covers the forest stretches of Krishnagiri and Dharmapuri districts.
  • This would be part of a protected landscape contiguous to the forests that constitute the Cauvery North Wildlife Sanctuary shared between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
  • The declaration of the Cauvery South Wildlife Sanctuary has been made under Section 26A (1) (b) of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972.
  • The declared landscape lends continuity to the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve through the Malai Mahadeshwara Wildlife Sanctuary, the Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve of Karnataka and the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in the Erode Forest Division of Tamil Nadu.


  • Tamil Nadu has been a pioneer State in Protected Area management and development of forest resources and wildlife. 
  • The total area under the protected area management is 7,072.95 sq. km. which comes to 30.92% of the State’s Forest area. 
  • The Protected Areas in the State includes 5 National parks, 15 Wildlife sanctuaries, 15 bird sanctuaries and 2 conservation reserves besides 5 Tiger Reserves.
Name of Wildlife Sanctuary Sanctuary Area in Ha District in which located Year in which started
Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary 21776.00 Nilgiris 1940
Mundanthurai Wildlife Sanctuary (R.F. 35228.38+ R.L.22979.20) 58207.58 Tirunelveli 1962
Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary 1728.81 Nagapattinam 1967
Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary 84149.00 Coimbatore 1976
Kalakad Wildlife Sanctuary 22358.00 Tirunelveli 1976
Vallanadu Black Buck Sanctuary 1641.00 Tuticorin 1987
Grizzled Giant Squirrel Wildlife Sanctuary 48520.00 Virudhunagar 1988
Kanyakumari Wildlife Sanctuary 40239.55 Kanyakumari 2007
Sathyamangalam Wildlife Sanctuary 141160.94 Erode 2008, 2011
Megamalai Wildlife Sanctuary 26910.81 Theni and Madurai 2009
Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary Block A and Block B 12407.27 Thanjavur and Tiruvarur Nagapattinam 2013
Kodaikanal Wildlife Sanctuary 60895.482 Dindigul and Theni 2013
Gangaikondan Spotted Deer Sanctuary 288.40 Tirunelveli 2013
Cauvery North Wildlife Sanctuary 50433.48 Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri 2014
Nellai Wildlife Sanctuary 35673.33 Tirunelveli 2015
Total 606389.657

Researchers discover new crab species in Vellar estuary in Cuddalore district

  • Researchers have discovered a new species of estuarine crab at the mangroves of Parangipettai near the Vellar river in Cuddalore district.
  • The species has been named Pseudohelice annamalai in recognition of Annamalai University’s 100 years of service in education and research.
  • So far, only two species — Pseudohelice subquadrata and Pseudohelice latreillii — have been confirmed within this genus.

Nicobar project gets assent for diversion of 130 sq. km of forest

  • The Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has granted an in principle (Stage 1) clearance for the diversion of 130.75 sq. km of forest on Great Nicobar Island for the mega 72,000­crore project that includes a transshipment port, an airport, a power plant and a greeneld township. 
  • The project implementation agency is the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Integrated Development Corporation (ANIIDCO).
  • The area is nearly 15% of the thickly forested Great Nicobar Island that is spread over 900 sq. km
  • The area diverted is nearly a quarter of all the forest land diverted in the past three years across the country which is 554 sq. km as per information provided in the Lok Sabha in July and 65% of the 203 sq. km of forest land diverted in the three year period 2015­18.
  • The forest area is home to nearly 650 species of ora and 330 species of fauna, including endemic species such as the Nicobar shrew, the Nicobar long tailed macaque, the Great Nicobar crested serpent eagle, the Nicobar paradise flycatcher and the Nicobar megapode, among many others.


  • The compensatory afforestation which is a key condition for the environmental clearance is planned to be done on “non­notied forest land” in Haryana.
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